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All the information contained in this Web page can be accessed free of charge. All text information has been compiled from various sources* and the author’s own library and experience. All text information may be used and copied without the prior consent of the author. The layout, format and graphic designs are original work of the author and may not be copied or used in any manner or form whatsoever. Regarding Photographic material, all material is original and may be used for educational purposes. Its use or reproduction is expressly prohibited for commercial purposes without the written consent from the author, consent may be withheld at the author's sole and absolute discretion. The purpose of this web page is to provide information on the various subjects covered. It is understood by the visitor to this web page that the author is not engaged in rendering legal, financial or other professional services oradvice. If expert advice on the subjects covered is required, the interested party should seek the services of a qualified professional. The author shall have no legal responsibility or liability to any person, institution or organization for the damages arising from or in any manner related to the information contained in this page or its use. All products sold through this web page are subject to their own limitations on use and guaranty. The author is not legally responsible for the improper use of the products sold throughout this web pages.

The sources of information for this web page were countless, the most important sources of scientific information were,Gems and Gemology and the Journal of Gemology. The Internet was essential in obtaining reference information. The bibliography was compiled from the bibliographic sections in various articles and books. The following books were extremely helpful:

Barriga del Diestro M 1973 Esmeraldas de Colombia Colombia
Martin de Retana JM 1990 El Gran Libro de la Esmeralda Espana
Mumme I.A. 1982 The Emerald Australia
Schwartz D. 1987 Esmeraldas, Inclusoes em Gemas Brazil
Sinkankas J. 1981 Emerald and other Beryls USA
Matlins A 1989 Gem Identification Made Easy USA
Newman R. 1996 Emerald & Tanzanite Buying Guide USA
Kazmi A.H 1989 Emeralds of Pakistan Pakistan
Snee L.W 1989 Emeralds of Pakistan Pakistan


Information was also obtained from commercial publications, especially Jewelers Circular Key-stone,Lapidary Journal, National Jeweler . The ICA Gazette was helpful on the subject of enhancements news and opinions.
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